*** SEE ATTACHED FOR PREVIOUS PARTS***In this portion of the course project, you will analyze your data in the following ways:Effectively record data, back-up the data and store a master copy – keeping original data intact.Sum the number of ratings, rankings, yes or no, etc. for each question.Find the mean, or average, for each question.Find the standard deviation and the z-score for each question.Infer results or draw conclusions.Note: You do not need to submit your analysis separately, instead, you will include your analysis in your written report (the tenth element of the written report). Remember that your analysis can (and likely should!) include important visual aids for your readers, including charts, graphics, and tables.Based upon your analysis, develop recommendations, think about limitations of the research, and write your final report. The report should include the following elements:Cover pageExecutive summaryTable of contentsIntroductionProblem statementResearch objectivesBackground research/literature reviewSampling designResearch designData analysis (may include visual aids – bars, charts, graphs, etc).LimitationsFindingsConclusionsRecommendationsReferencesBe sure to distinguish between the various sections of the report by utilizing headings. Each of the 15 elements will be a major heading, which should be bolded and centered. If minor headings are used, they should be bolded and aligned left. The cover page, executive summary, table of contents, and reference page should all be on stand-alone pages.Keep in mind, a number of these elements were previously submitted. Be sure to review the feedback you received from your instructor and make recommended edits or updates. Also, consider restructuring the written elements as needed in order to include them in the final report (for example your problem statement may have stated what you will research, and now it is something you have researched, so your tense may change).



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Criteria 1: Report includes an effective executive summary, table of contents, introduction, problem statement,
research objectives, and background information via literature review
Criteria 2: Sampling and research design is clearly defined within the report
Criteria 3: Explanation of the data analysis process is included within the report
Criteria 4: Report provides discussion of limitations of the research and findings
Criteria 5: Report focuses on effective and accurate conclusion(s) and business strategy recommendations with an
awareness of audience
Module 02 Course Project
Beginning Your Research Plan/Proposal and Literature Review
Matthew Marquette
Rasmussen College B312/GEB3124
Author Note
This paper is being submitted on April 14, 2019, for Professor Elizabeth MacDonald
B312/GEB3124 Section 01 Business Research and Analysis- Online Plus
Amazon Case Study
In the past few years, Amazon has moved from a small retailer in Seattle to a global
empire with more than 300 million customers globally. It is the largest bookstore and one of
the most successful online ventures globally. Since it’ founding in 1994 by Jeff Bezos,
Amazon has expanded its operations by adding products ranging from accessories, video
games, fashion and music (Kandemirli, Bahadir, 2018). The company has a network of 40
million centres in seven countries (Amazon, 2019). This success story can be attributed to
Amazon’s business strategy that emphasizes innovative technology to streamline operations
and ensure great customer experience. Current Amazon’s employees work in technologyenabled environments where innovative technology is used to improve processes. One of the
most significant steps taken by Amazon was to provide an avenue for customers to search
and purchases books online. This innovation was a considerable blow to the traditional stores
that had not implemented digital technology to win customers. Amazon further expanded its
Amazon.com portal to sell appliances and accessories to other markets.
Research Question
The paper is an attempt to answer the following question: How does technology shape
and influence business strategy at Amazon and contribute to greater customer experience?
Research Method
The current study will be a case study analysis of Amazon Inc. The purpose of the
study is to explore technology innovation as a business strategy. The study will use
qualitative secondary data from literature reviews related to the study, and materials from the
company’s website. Data will be analysed thematically to expose the role of technology in
ensuring improved customer experience.
Literature Review
Amazon has adopted innovative technology to ensure excellent customer experience;
new features allow users to find books with ease and read reviews by clicking review buttons
instead of the traditional methods (Amazon, 2019). The current business strategy at Amazon
focuses on the provision of a variety of goods and services at affordable prices to achieve
economies of scale and improved customer experience. Amazon’s digital strategy is expected
to enable limitless inventory, boost customer care and ensure lowest prices and high margin.
The company has nearly 600 billion products for sale on its platform and has been ranked for
nine consecutive years as the best company in terms of customer satisfaction. Some of the
innovative technology adopted by Amazon to ensure high margin include KIVA Robotic
Fulfilment, AWS, Amazon Robotics, Internet and digital services and content support.
Customer experience has become a significant competitive factor in today’s market.
Companies are focusing on innovative technology to put their business ahead of the
competition by improving customer experience. Customer experience refers to the quality of
all customers contact a company’s products (Hill, & Brierley, 2017). It includes different
aspects of a firm’s provision of goods and services, which range from packaging, advertising,
the product itself, customer care and reliability of service features.
Customer experience is a significant determinant of a company’s domination in the
market, and many companies understand that the key to success lies in providing excellent
customer experience. According to Visnjic, Weingarten & Neely, the focus has moved from
the narrow emphasis on introducing innovation to ensuring that the innovation, whether new
or old, is the best there is in the market. Companies can provide the best customer experience
not by inventing new technology but by harnessing the power of existing innovations to offer
goods and services that exceed expectations.
Several Studies have focused on the role of innovation, and especially digital
innovation, in ensuring growth and improved customer experience. According to
Chesbrough, companies that ignore innovation die and not all innovations became a success
story. Today’s market is dynamic and innovative products keep popping up (Chesbrough,
2006). This means that managing innovation is a crucial part of any business growth and
expansion strategy. According to Visnjic, Weingarten & Neely, industries like manufacturing
and services witness 95 percent failed innovations (Visnjic, Weingarten & Neely, 2016). This
means that successful innovation is a complicated process that requires the integration of
many factors.
Technological innovation is a privilege for improving productivity and streamlining
customer experience. This suggests that companies must ensure they have innovative goods
and services and advanced technology to attract customers and guarantee satisfaction. One of
the main concerns of digital innovation is trust, which involves security and reliability of
digital technology. The role of trust is more widespread in E-commerce activities’ where
customers do not interact directly with companies. Economic efficiency theories state that
businesses should ensure the lowest cost per output unit (Waldman, & Jensen, 2016). These
theories posit that high rates of competition should deter companies from raising prices to
unreasonable levels when attempting to maximize profits. This means that companies must
look for other ways of competing effectively in the market. According to Chen & Quester,
the application of technology is the key to improving services (Chen & Quester, 2015). Other
studies found that technological innovation enhances the efficiency of operations and reduces
transaction costs for customers.
A study by Chappuis investigated the role of multiple digital technologies in the
consumer market. The study found that smartphone users are more likely to pay for digital
services and content than traditional users. Three of four iPhone users in the study were
repaying for one or more applications every month (Chappuis et al., 2011). The findings
suggest that as more services and content are distributed online using mobile channels,
demand for innovative digital technology will rise and competition will increase.
Many businesses are turning to self-service enabled technologies to streamline
customer experience by relieving from the burden of having to queue up. Some of these
technologies range from researching goods and services online before making a purchase
decision to self-scanning. Customers also look for products in the store before purchasing
them. According to Fernandez & Estevez, retailers are expected to provide a shopping
experience that can lead to customer loyalty and increased satisfaction. The introduction and
innovation of technology applications can be more relevant when customers are making
purchase decisions because they are less concerned with the variability of price (Fernandez &
Estevez, 2016). Online marketing has made it possible for businesses to build a brand and
attract customers from all over the world almost effortlessly. Most companies have a mobile
application to help customers get information and communicate with the customer care desk
for assistance.
To sum up, digital technology has become an integral part of any business growth and
expansion strategy. The development of e-commerce, internet, and mobile applications have
revolutionized businesses operations and introduced new opportunities for increasing
customer experience. E-commerce and other technological developments have improved
customer experience. Today customers are making online purchases using their mobile
devices at any place. They can compare prices, find alternative goods and services and find
stores much more easily than before, thanks to digital innovation. Amazon is one of the few
companies to embrace digital technology as part of its business growth strategy. The
company has grown to become the leading retailer to books online and other products in part
due to the implementation of a business strategy that focuses on digital technology
innovation. The company provides a wide range of services such as technology, web services,
and digital storage, and an online platform for sellers and buyers to exchange goods and
services. Technology has led to improved business standards because Amazon can
immediately respond to customer needs, track online activities and identify patterns that can
be used to enhanced service delivery and increase satisfaction.
Amazon (2017). Technology at Work. Retrieved from:
Chappuis, B., Guffey, B., & Parvizi, P. (2011). Are your customers becoming digital junkies?
McKinsey Quarterly, July, 1–4 Retrieved April 19, 2012, from
Chen, S. C., & Quester, P. G. (2015). The relative contribution of love and trust towards
customer loyalty. Australasian Marketing Journal, 23(1), 13-18.
Chesbrough, H. W. (2006). Open innovation: The new imperative for creating and profiting
from technology. Harvard Business Press.
Fernandez, T., & Estevez, F. (2016). Customer engagement and loyalty: A comparative study
between service contexts. Services Marketing Quarterly, 37(2), 125-139.
Geffen, D., & Straub, D. W. (2000). The relative importance of perceived ease of use in IS
adoption: A study of e-commerce adoption. Journal of the Association for
Information Systems, 1(1), 8.
Hill, N., & Brierley, J. (2017). How to measure customer satisfaction. Routledge.
Kandemirli, Bahadir. (2018). Amazon.com digital strategies: Amazon.com case study.
Visnjic, I., Weingarten, F., & Neely, A. (2016). Only the brave: Product innovation, service
business model innovation, and their impact on performance. Journal of Product
Innovation Management, 33(1), 36-52.
Waldman, D., & Jensen, E. (2016). Industrial organization: theory and practice. Routledge.
Module 03 Course Project
Finalize your Research Plan/Proposal
Matthew Marquette
Rasmussen College B312/GEB3124
Author Note
This paper is being submitted on April 21, 2019, for Professor Elizabeth MacDonald
B312/GEB3124 Section 01 Business Research and Analysis- Online Plus
Research Methodology
In this research, the qualitative research method will be applied to explore technology
innovation as an Amazon business strategy. The qualitative approach was chosen due to various
compelling reasons. Qualitative research approaches are useful in identifying the meaning that
people have attached to certain experiences. The qualitative research method will be applied to
discover the customers meaning on the Amazon innovativeness as the business. The research
will explore how the customers feel about Amazon services while comparing its competitors
such as Hulu, Walmart, and Netflix and so on. In this case, qualitative research will focus on
teaching what or how questions. At the end of the study, the following questions will be
A. How does technology shape and influence business strategy at Amazon and contribute to
greater customer experience?
B. How do customers feel about Amazon services?
The qualitative data will be explored, and appropriately analyzed to conclude. To obtain
data about the customers’ experience on the Amazon services an interview will be undertaken
(Mudambi & Schuff, 2010). The interview will take place through the telephone or online
platforms where they will be asked to rate the Amazon customer service (Kandemirli, Bahadir.
2018). The open-ended interviews will be conducted to find how technology shapes and
influences business strategy at Amazon and how it contributes to greater customer service. Upon
undertaking the interview, the participants will be alerted on the purpose of the study. Grounded
theory will be utilized in the research which flows from the transition of Strauss, Charmaz, and
Corbin. The grounded theory allows the researcher to be open-minded. It allows the researcher
to link to data collection with data analysis and come up with a good model to describe the
situation. The console criteria for reporting qualitative research will be applied to ensure there is
quality control in the research. The responses that will be received will be categorized as
positive or negative. Ideally, the positive responses will be rated by 3, 4, and 5 while negative
reactions will be represented by 1 and 2. An interactive approach will be applied in refining an
interview methodology. The accuracy of the data collected will be assured so that it can be used
in formulating the appropriate theoretical framework.
Investigative Questions
The investigative questions will be applied to explore the customer experience with the
Amazon business strategy. Ideally, Amazon has come up with various smart devices which have
improved customers experience (Parise, Guinan, & Kafka, 2016). The investigative questions
that will be applied include the following.

Which types of goods or services do you order through Amazon products or services do
you through the Amazon?

Do they offer a variety of products?

How efficient is it to trace the product you wish to buy from the Amazon website?

What are the qualities of products that are offered by Amazon?

How long does it take for Amazon to do delivery?

In case of errors, how long does it take to get a refund?

How have innovative devices improved customer service?
Measurement Questions
In the research, measurement is critical in exploring people’s opinion, perception or
satisfaction. Measurements will be instrumental in identifying the customers’ satisfaction with
the Amazon technological innovativeness (Visnjic, Weingarten, & Neely, 2016). Ideally, the
measurement can only be delivered from interviewing the participants. In this regard, a random
interview will be undertaken to capture the customers’ satisfaction. The customers will be asked
to rate their satisfaction with Amazon products or services. The response will be categorized
into five different portions. The responses will be distributed as excellent, good, fair, poor, and
very poor. The measurements questions will be as follows

How many orders do you make in a week?

How do you like Amazon products?
Measurement Scale(s)
The measurement scale is applied to quantify or categorize variables. The nominal and
ordinal scales will be applied to categorize the customer satisfaction towards Amazon goods or
services. For instance, the most preferred Amazon services or will be ranked as one but no value
attached to the number. Also, the nominal measurement will be applied to measure the
customers’ responses. The female participants will be ranked as 1, and male participants will be
ranked as 2. This will help to capture which services that a specific demographic segment prefers
from the Amazon. Also, it will be applied to capture which gender between male and female
prefer purchasing goods or services from Amazon. Similarly, the ordinal measurements will be
applied to rank the customers’ responses to the level of satisfaction they derive from Amazon.
The responses will be ranged from excellent to very poor.
Likely Participants
The research will cover various participants capture the customers’ satisfaction in the in
almost all segments. The participants will include both male and female from 18-60 years. The
participants will be chosen randomly to avoid biases. To capture varied responses from a large
number of participants, online and phone interviews will be undertaken.
Potential For Errors And How They Will Be Addressed
The potential errors that will like to be experienced in the research include measurement,
non-responsive and selection errors. According to Ezzy (2013), selection errors occur when
research samples the participants who have common characteristics. The information errors are
likely to occur when an interview covers Amazon staffs or shareholders. The second errors that
will likely to occur are the measurement errors. The measurements errors are likely to occur
when the research fails to capture Amazon customers (Klaus, 2013). Lastly, non-responsive
errors are likely to occur. The non-responsive errors will occur when some respondents are
inaccessible. The research errors will be overcome by randomization. Randomization involves
choosing the respondents fairly such each participant has high chances to be included in the
research. It minimizes the biases since participants are equally chosen. Also, confounding
variables can be addressed standardization. The standardization involves subtracting the mean
from every value to create uniformity in the data.
Ezzy, D. (2013). Qualitative analysis. Routledge.
Kandemirli, Bahadir. (2018). Amazon.com digital strategies: Amazon.com case study.
Klaus, P. (2013). The case of Amazon. Com: towards a conceptual framework of online
customer service experience (OCSE) using the emerging consensus technique (ECT).
Journal of
Services Marketing, 27(6), 443-457.
Mudambi, S. M., & Schuff, D. (2010). What makes a helpful review? A study of customer
reviews on Amazon. Com. MIS Quarterly, 34(1), 185-200.
Parise, S., Guinan, P. J., & Kafka, R. (2016). Solving the crisis of immediacy: How digital
technology can transform the customer experience. Business Horizons, 59(4), 411-420.
Visnjic, I., Weingarten, F., & Neely, A. (2016). Only the brave: Product innovation, service
business model innovation, and their impact on performance. Journal of Product
Innovation Management, 33(1), 36-52.

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