**THIS IS A CONTINUATION FROM THE PREVIOUS ASSIGNMENT YOU COMPLETED: A DEBATE ON THE CAUSES OF DEPRESSION**By successfully completing this assignment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assignment criteria:
Competency 2: Apply psychological principles to topics in psychology.

State a position on the causes of depression.

Competency 3: Analyze scholarly information and research findings through critical thinking to solve problems in the field of psychology.

Identify arguments to support the position taken on the causes of depression.
Identify counterarguments to the initial arguments.
Identify rebuttal arguments to the counterarguments.
Draw a conclusion about the strength of the original position.

Competency 5: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for professionals in the field of psychology.

Support arguments, counterarguments, and rebuttals with scholarly evidence that is cited correctly according to APA guidelines.
Write in a manner that is scholarly, clear, and free of grammatical and spelling errors.

This week, you will compile the information that you have presented and gathered about the causes of depression.Use the Debate Preparation and Summary Worksheet that you started in Unit 5 to summarize the debate activity. In this worksheet, you will present your position and arguments for the causes of depression, counterarguments to your position and arguments, and rebuttals to those counterarguments. The worksheet will finish with a conclusion on the strength of your position. Remember to apply the MEAL Plan, linked in the Resources, to your positions and arguments.Be sure to view the Causes of Depression Debate Preparation and Summary Scoring Guide to ensure that you have included each of these elements of the assignment:
Your position.
At least three well-developed arguments.
Counterarguments that oppose your arguments.
Rebuttals to the counterarguments that opposed your arguments.
Evidence to support your arguments and rebuttals.
A conclusion that asserts why your position is strong.
In-text citations and references for all sources of information.



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The Causes of Depression
The causes of depression
The American Psychiatric Association define depression as a common and serious
medical illness that negatively impacts how one feels, think, and behave. Individuals struggling
with depression tend to experience sadness and lack of interest in activities they previously
enjoyed. Other than this, such individuals tend to exhibit significant weight loss, feeling of
worthlessness, lack of energy, and recurrent thoughts of suicide (American Psychological
Association). The condition has been described as the major cause of suicide and disability
worldwide, characterized by reoccurrence and increase in severity over one’s life if not managed
at an early stage (Sibille & French, 2013). Biological and cognitive-behavioral perspectives
remain the major concepts proposed to describe depression (Sibille & French, 2013). Of these
two perspectives for the cause of depression, I believe that the biological perspective is the best
explanation for the cause of depression.
There exist several pieces of evidence which attribute depression to the biological
perspective which include family history, a chemical imbalance in the brain, and specific
medical conditions which lead to depression. Most twin studies conducted on depression have
led to the conclusion that depression runs in the family, making it genetically linked. According
to the American Psychiatric Association, there is a high likelihood of both identical twins to
struggle with depression. “If one identical twin has depression, the other has a 70 percent chance
of having the illness sometime in life” (American Psychiatric Association). Chemical imbalances
or problems in the brain have also been attributed to the development of depression.
According to Hammen and Watkins (2018), neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine,
and dopamine are the main hormones involved in controlling the main functions of the nervous
system. In humans, neurotransmitter serotonin affects the central nervous system in various ways
and is attributed to various human behaviors such as aggression, sleeping, and mood. Reduction
in the production of serotonin is associated with mood changes and suicidal thoughts (Ahmad,
2018). Norepinephrine has also been associated with depression in that it helps the body
recognize and respond to stress. Research indicates that individuals with a poorly developed
norepinephrinergic system are unable to handle and manage stress situations effectively exposing
them to depression (Ahmad, 2018). Dopamine, on the other hand, is associated with the
individual ability to seek and experience a pleasure. Individuals with low dopamine levels tend
to fail to experience a pleasure. While low dopamine levels fail to cause stress, it makes it hard
for people to experience pleasure, amplifying the signs and symptoms of the condition (Ahmad,
2018). The understanding of the role that these hormones play in depression has seen the
development of a majority, if not all of the clinically available antidepressant drugs.
Other than genetical and chemical imbalances in the brain, specific medical conditions
have been attributed to the development of depression. Thyroid disorders remain the most
common medical conditions associated with depression, with the relationship between
hypothyroidism and depression being accepted (Hage & Azar, 2012). Other than hypothyroidism
causing being a major precursor to depression, thyroid hormone supplements tend to accelerate
and enhance the clinical response to antidepressant drugs (Hage & Azar, 2012). These pieces of
evidence point to depression being as a result of biological factors, making biochemical
imbalance, medical condition, or change in hormone level to cause changes in mood and faulty
thinking, which leads to depression. It’s the existence of the biological factors which lead to
change in mood and faulty thinking based on the existing etiological factors and environmental
moderators such as gender and socioeconomic status.
Ahmad, M. (2018). Impact of Neurotransmitters, Emotional Intelligence and Personality on
Investor’s Behavior and Investment Decisions. Pakistan Journal of Commerce & Social
Sciences, 12(1), 330–362.
American Psychiatric Association. (n.d). What Is Depression? Retrieved from
Hage, M. P., & Azar, S. T. (2012). The Link between Thyroid Function and Depression. Journal
of Thyroid Research, 2012, 1-8. doi:10.1155/2012/590648
Hammen, C., & Watkins, E. (2018). Biological aspects of depression. Depression, 89-125.
Sibille, E., & French, B. (2013). Biological substrates underpinning diagnosis of major
depression. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 16(08), 1893–
Learner Name:
Debate Preparation and Summary Worksheet
To prepare for the debate in Unit 5, use this worksheet to synthesize what you have learned
from your research on the causes of depression. Complete Section 1 Debate Preparation to
organize your position, arguments, and evidence for the debate.
You will then complete Section 2 Debate Summary following the debate, and will turn the full
worksheet in at the end of the Unit 6 for grading as a summary of the debate.
Section 1 – Debate Preparation
1. Your Position Statement
In the space below, construct a position statement that reflects your perspective on the cause of
depression. Your position should include the following:

A description of the perspective you are taking (either biological or cognitive behavioral).

Write your position statement.

A brief summary of each argument that you will present to support your position (you
should construct three arguments for your position).
2. Your Summary of the Arguments that Support Your Position and the
Evidence From Research to Support Those Arguments. (Please include
appropriate in-text citations for your evidence and then include the full reference in the
reference list – #5 below). Include evidence from research for each argument.
Supporting Argument 1:
Evidence, example, illustration 1:
Evidence, example, illustration 2:
Evidence, example, illustration 3:
Supporting Argument 2:
Evidence, example, illustration 1:
Evidence, example, illustration 2:
Evidence, example, illustration 3:
Supporting Argument 3:
Evidence, example, illustration 1:
Evidence, example, illustration 2:
Evidence, example, illustration 3:
Add additional supporting arguments as needed. (If you have more than three arguments, place
them in the same format as the others here):
Section 2 – Debate Summary
(Complete after the Unit 5 debate)
3. Counter Arguments to Your Position and Your Rebuttals – With what counter
arguments did others challenge your position? How did you reply to challenge their
counter arguments (these are your rebuttals).
What opponents said to counter your
arguments (paraphrase your
understanding of their counter
arguments—do not copy and paste
Your rebuttals to the counter arguments
that they made to you or could have
made to you based on their positions.
(Please cite any sources you used):
Note: If you did not receive any counter
arguments directly to your post, think about
counter arguments presented to your
peers that could also apply to yours. You
may also use counter arguments that you
have read in the literature.
4. Summary and Conclusion Section (use this section as a way to summarize the

From the information from above, in one or two well-developed paragraphs, summarize
in your own words the counter arguments opposing your position:

In one or two well-developed paragraphs, summarize your rebuttals to the counter
arguments that opposed your position:

Write a statement and conclusion of why your position is the most valid and reasonable:
5. APA Reference List – Journal articles go in the following format:
Author last name, initials of first and middle names (if provided). (Year of publication). Title of
the article. Title of the Journal, volume(issue), page numbers. doi number if the article has one.
Example of a reference for a journal article:
Klassen, R. M., Perry, N. E., & Frenzel, A. C. (2012). Teachers’ relatedness with students:
An underemphasized component of teachers’ basic psychological needs. Journal
of Educational Psychology, 104(1), 150–165. doi: 10.1037/a0026253
Use this area below to format the references you used in the debate.
This guide is a helpful tool when constructing paragraphs and essays. Here’s how the MEAL
plan relates to essays and paragraphs.
Introduction/Thesis Statement
Topic Sentence/Main Idea
Evidence and Analysis
Link/Transition to Next Paragraph
Main Idea
Every paragraph should have one main idea. An essay or piece of writing similarly focuses on
one topic. If you find that your paragraphs have more than one main idea, separate your
paragraphs so that each has only one main point. The idea behind a paragraph is to introduce
an idea and expand upon it. If you veer off into a new topic, begin a new paragraph.
Your main idea needs support, either in the form of evidence that supports your argument or
examples that explain your idea. If you don’t have any evidence or examples to support your
main idea, your idea may not be strong enough to warrant a complete paragraph. In this case,
re-evaluate your idea and see whether you need even to keep it in the paper.
This goes the same for writing an essay. The evidence should support the main argument of the
writing assignment. If it does not, then your writing may lack focus and need to be revised.
Analysis is the heart of academic writing. While your readers want to see evidence or examples
of your idea, the real “meat” of your idea is your interpretation (analysis) of your evidence or
• how you break them apart
• compare them to other ideas
• use them to build a persuasive case
• demonstrate their strengths or weaknesses
Analysis is especially important if your evidence (E) is a quote from another author. Always
follow a quote with your analysis of the quote, demonstrating how that quote helps you to make
your case. If you let a quote stand on its own, then the author of that quote will have a stronger
voice in your paragraph (and maybe even your paper) than you will.
Link or Transition
Links help your reader to see how your paragraphs fit together. When you end a paragraph, try
to link it to something else in your paper, such as your thesis or argument, the previous
paragraph or main idea, or the following paragraph. Creating links will help your reader
understand the logic and organization of your paper, as well as the logic and organization of
your argument or main points. Key words that are ‘links’ include:
• however
• thus,
• nonetheless,
• so
• still, despite,
• although
Writing Center, August 2014

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