2-part assignment. Part 1-Discussion question: Respond to the following prompt in an original post that is between 200 and 400 words: Think back to when you were in elementary or high school. Were there English Learners (ELs) in your classes? Were you aware that they were ELs? Were ELs taught differently? If you were an EL student, what was your experience? How do these experiences compare to what you see now in schools? Part 2-Journal #2 The Journal Reflections allow you to describe what you are reading, learning, and connecting to the objectives of the course and the SEI course frame work in each module in this course. You will respond to three prompts that deal with your active involvement with and active development with SEI issues course activities, readings, and team work. Details Note that each journal reflection consists of responses to the three prompts listed below with a minimum of five (thoughtful and probing) sentences for each prompt. What are the more important things you learned during the modules’ reading(s), tasks, and interactions? How do they relate to the course and SEI course frame work objectives?What was something you already knew or had learned but it was reinforced during the modules’ reading(s), tasks, and interactions? How do they relate to the course and SEI course frame work objectives?Write down a question or query you have concerning a topic(s) discussed or read during the week and consider how you might begin going about responding and/or answering it. How might this query relate to the course and SEI course frame work objectives? The journal submissions are only read by your instructor. At times, the instructor may copy some submissions and share anonymously with the class. The purpose of this activity is to guide your own reflection and learning; the purpose is not to produce a professional research paper. As such, APA formatting is not required. However, because your instructor will read your entries, you should make every effort to ensure the entry includes correct grammar and spelling. References do not need to be in strict APA format, but the instructor must be able to determine what material you are referring to.Readings from this week’s assignmentsCh 5-foundations for teaching English language learners (attached)Ch 1 Making content comprehensible for English learners (attached)4 Ways ESSA will change how schools serve ELL Studenthttps://www.educationdive.com/news/4-ways-essa-will-change-how-schools-serve-ell-students/428266/Arizona’s English-Learner Debate Unlikely to Wane, Despite Rulinghttps://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2015/06/18/arizonas-english-learner-debate-unlikely-to-wane-despite.htmlBill text AZ SB1014https://legiscan.com/AZ/text/SB1014/id/1914706
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In this article,
1. “Bilingual education/native language instruction” means a language acquisition process for students in which much or
all instruction, textbooks, or teaching materials are in the child’s native language other than English.
2. “English language classroom” means a classroom in which English is the language of instruction used by the teaching
personnel, and in which such teaching personnel possess a good knowledge of the English language. English language
classrooms encompass both English language mainstream classrooms and sheltered English immersion classrooms
3. “English language mainstream classroom” means a classroom in which the students either are native English language
speakers or already have acquired reasonable fluency in English.
4. “English learner” or “limited English proficient student” means a child who does not speak English or whose native
language is not English, and who is not currently able to perform ordinary classroom work in English.
5. “Sheltered English immersion” or “structured English immersion” means an English language acquisition process for
young children in which nearly all classroom instruction is in English but with the curriculum and presentation designed
for children who are learning the language. Books and instructional materials are in English and all reading, writing, and
subject matter are taught in English. Although teachers may use a minimal amount of the child’s native language when
necessary, no subject matter shall be taught in any language other than English, and children in this program learn to read
and write solely in English. This educational methodology represents the standard definition of “sheltered English” or
“structured English” found in educational literature.
15-752. English language education
Subject to the exceptions provided in section 15-753, all children in Arizona public schools shall be taught English by
being taught in English and all children shall be placed in English language classrooms. Children who are English
learners shall be educated through sheltered English immersion during a temporary transition period not normally
intended to exceed one year. Local schools shall be permitted but not required to place in the same classroom English
learners of different ages but whose degree of English proficiency is similar. Local schools shall be encouraged to mix
together in the same classroom English learners from different native-language groups but with the same degree of
English fluency. Once English learners have acquired a good working knowledge of English and are able to do regular
school work in English, they shall no longer be classified as English learners and shall be transferred to English language
mainstream classrooms. As much as possible, current per capita supplemental funding for English learners shall be
maintained. Foreign language classes for children who already know English shall be completely unaffected, as shall
special educational programs for physically- or mentally-impaired students.
15-753. Parental waivers
A. The requirements of section 15-752 may be waived with the prior written informed consent, to be provided annually,
of the child’s parents or legal guardian under the circumstances specified in this section. Such informed consent shall
require that said parents or legal guardian personally visit the school to apply for the waiver and that they there be
provided a full description of the educational materials to be used in the different educational program choices and all the
educational opportunities available to the child. If a parental waiver has been granted, the affected child shall be
transferred to classes teaching English and other subjects through bilingual education techniques or other generally
recognized educational methodologies permitted by law. Individual schools in which 20 students or more of a given
grade level receive a waiver shall be required to offer such a class; in all other cases, such students must be permitted to
transfer to a public school in which such a class is offered.
B. The circumstances in which a parental exception waiver may be applied for under this section are as follows:
1. Children who already know English: the child already possesses good English language skills, as measured by oral
evaluation or standardized tests of English vocabulary comprehension, reading, and writing, in which the child scores
approximately at or above the state average for his grade level or at or above the 5th grade average, whichever is lower; or
2. Older children: the child is age 10 years or older, and it is the informed belief of the school principal and educational
staff that an alternate course of educational study would be better suited to the child’s overall educational progress and
rapid acquisition of basic English language skills; or
3. Children with special individual needs: the child already has been placed for a period of not less than thirty calendar
days during that school year in an English language classroom and it is subsequently the informed belief of the school
principal and educational staff that the child has such special and individual physical or psychological needs, above and
beyond the child’s lack of English proficiency, that an alternate course of educational study would be better suited to the
child’s overall educational development and rapid acquisition of English. A written description of no less than 250 words
documenting these special individual needs for the specific child must be provided and permanently added to the child’s
official school records, and the waiver application must contain the original authorizing signatures of both the school
principal and the local superintendent of schools. Any such decision to issue such an individual waiver is to be made
subject to the examination and approval of the local school superintendent, under guidelines established by and subject to
the review of the local governing board and ultimately the state board of education. Teachers and local school districts
may reject waiver requests without explanation or legal consequence, the existence of such special individual needs shall
not compel issuance of a waiver, and the parents shall be fully informed of their right to refuse to agree to a waiver.
15-754. Legal standing and parental enforcement
As detailed in sections 15-752 and 15-753, all Arizona school children have the right to be provided at their local school
with an English language public education. The parent or legal guardian of any Arizona school child shall have legal
standing to sue for enforcement of the provisions of this statute, and if successful shall be awarded normal and customary
attorney’s fees and actual and compensatory damages, but not punitive or consequential damages. Any school board
member or other elected official or administrator who willfully and repeatedly refuses to implement the terms of this
statute may be held personally liable for fees and actual and compensatory damages by the child’s parents or legal
guardian, and cannot be subsequently indemnified for such assessed damages by any public or private third party. Any
individual found so liable shall be immediately removed from office, and shall be barred from holding any position of
authority anywhere within the Arizona public school system for an additional period of five years.
15-755. Standardized testing for monitoring education progress
In order to ensure that the educational progress of all Arizona students in academic subjects and in learning English is
properly monitored, a standardized, nationally-normed written test of academic subject matter given in English shall be
administered at least once each year to all Arizona public schoolchildren in grades two through twelve. All students with
disabilities shall be included in all general state and district assessments, with appropriate accommodations and alternate
assessments where necessary and as indicated in their respective individual education program, in accordance with 20
United States Code section 1412. The particular test to be used shall be selected by the office of the state superintendent
of public instruction, and it is intended that the test shall generally remain the same from year to year. The national
percentile scores of students shall be confidentially provided to individual parents, and the aggregated percentile scores
and distributional data for individual schools and school districts shall be made publicly available on an internet web site,
and the scores for students classified as “limited-English” shall be separately subaggregated and made publicly available
there as well. Although administration of this test is required solely for monitoring educational progress, Arizona public
officials and administrators may utilize these test scores for other purposes as well if they so choose.
15-756. Identification of English language learners
A. The primary or home language for all new pupils who enroll in a school district or charter school shall be identified in
a manner prescribed by the superintendent of public instruction.
B. The English language proficiency of all pupils with a primary or home language other than English shall be assessed
through the administration of English language proficiency assessments in a manner prescribed by the superintendent of
public instruction. The test scores adopted by the superintendent as indicating English language proficiency shall be
based on the test publishers’ designated scores. The department shall annually request an appropriation to pay for the
purchase of all language proficiency assessments, scoring and ancillary materials as prescribed by the department for
school districts and charter schools.
C. If it is determined that a pupil is not English language proficient, the pupil shall be classified as an English language
learner and shall be enrolled in an English language education program pursuant to section 15-752 or 15-753.
15-756.01. State board of education; research based models of structured English immersion for English language
learners; budget requests; definitions
A. The state board of education shall either use research based models of structured English immersion programs that
were previously developed and adopted by the English language learners task force or develop and adopt new research
based models of structured English immersion programs for use by school districts and charter schools. The department of
education shall provide adequate staff support for the state board of education to comply with this article. The models
shall take into consideration at least the size of the school, the location of the school, the grade levels at the school, the
number of English language learners and the percentage of English language learners. The models shall be limited to
programs for English language learners to participate in a structured English immersion program not normally intended to
exceed one year. The state board of education shall identify the minimum amount of English language development per
day for all models. The state board of education shall develop separate models for the first year in which a pupil is
classified as an English language learner that include a minimum of four hours per day of English language development.
B. The research based models of structured English immersion adopted by the state board of education shall be the most
cost-efficient models that meet all state and federal laws.
C. The research based models of structured English immersion shall be limited to a regular school year and school
day. Instruction outside the regular school year or school day shall be provided with compensatory instruction and may
be eligible for funding from the statewide compensatory instruction fund established by section 15-756.11.
D. The research based models of structured English immersion shall be submitted by the state board of education to the
president of the senate, the speaker of the house of representatives, the governor and the state board of education. At least
thirty days before adoption, the state board of education shall submit the research based models of structured English
immersion to the joint legislative budget committee for review.
E. The state board of education shall review research based models of structured English immersion annually and delete
from, add to or modify the existing models. When adopting or modifying English language learner programs, the state
board of education shall review and consider the information and data obtained as a result of the department of education’s
monitoring of English language learner programs pursuant to section 15-756.08.
F. The state board of education shall establish procedures for school districts and charter schools to determine the
incremental costs for implementation of the research based models of structured English immersion developed by the state
board of education.
G. The state board of education shall establish a form for school districts and charter schools to determine the structured
English immersion budget request amount. Notwithstanding any other law, the maximum amount of the budget request
shall be the incremental costs of the model selected offset by the following monies:
1. All federal title III monies and any other federal monies designated solely for the educational needs of English language
2. The portion of title I and title IIA monies determined by the English language learner population as a percentage of the
3. The portion of impact aid monies determined by the English language learner population as a percentage of the
qualified population. A school district or charter school shall only apply unexpended impact aid monies to English
language learner programs after it has applied its impact aid monies for other allowable uses as permitted by state law.
4. The portion of desegregation monies levied pursuant to section 15-910 determined by the English language learner
population as a percentage of the qualified population.
5. The ELL support level weight prescribed in section 15-943.
H. The difference calculated pursuant to subsection G of this section shall be the maximum amount of the structured
English immersion budget request pursuant to section 15-756.03 for monies from the Arizona structured English
immersion fund established by section 15-756.04. School districts and charter schools shall not include the incremental
costs of any pupil who is classified as an English language learner after July 1, 2007 and who has been classified as an
English language learner for more than two years in the calculation of the school district’s or charter school’s structured
English immersion budget request.
I. In consultation with the auditor general, the department of education shall develop and adopt forms to be used by school
districts and charter schools to submit budget requests for the Arizona structured English immersion fund, including the
form prescribed in subsection G of this section.
J. For the purposes of this section:
1. “Compensatory instruction” has the same meaning prescribed in section 15-756.11.
2. “Incremental costs” means costs that are associated with a structured English immersion program pursuant to section
15-752 or a program pursuant to section 15-753 and that are in addition to the normal costs of conducting programs for
English proficient students. Incremental costs do not include costs that replace the same types of services provided to
English proficient students or compensatory instruction.
15-756.02. School districts and charter schools; English language learner models; adoption and implementation
A. Each school district governing board and each governing body of a charter school shall select one or more of the state
board of education approved models for structured English immersion for implementation on a school by school basis.
B. If a school district or charter school wants to adopt an English language learner program that is not based on a model
adopted by the state board of education, the school district or charter school shall first submit the proposed program along
with supporting documentation regarding the expected outcomes of the program on the district’s or charter school’s
English language learner students to the state board of education for approval.
C. On receipt of a proposed program from a school district or charter school, the state board of education may do one of
1. Approve the proposed program.
2. Provide limited approval subject to specific stipulations prescribed by the state board.
3. Reject the proposed program and identify a model approved by the state board of education for the school district or
charter school to adopt.
D. School districts and charter schools shall include a copy of the adopted English language learner program in the annual
report required in section 15-756.10.
15-756.03. Structured English immersion; budget request
A. If a school district or charter school qualifies to submit a budget request based on the form prescribed in section 15756.01, subsection G, the school district or charter school shall submit a structured English immersion budget request on a
school by school basis. The budget request shall be for a specific amount of supplemental monies from the Arizona
structured English immersion fund established by section 15-756.04.
B. Each school district or charter school structured English immersion budget request shall include the signature of the
superintendent of the school district and the chief financial officer of the school district or the principal of the charter
school and the chief financial officer of the charter school that certifies that the information in the budget request is true to
the best of that person’s knowledge and has been calculated in accordance with the form prescribed in section 15-756.01,
subsection G and that monies from the Arizona structured English immersion fund established by section 15-756.04 will
not be used to supplant any federal, state or local monies, including desegregation monies levied pursuant to section 15910, used for English language learners that were budgeted for English language learners as of February 23, 2006.
C. Each school district and charter school that submits a structured English immersion budget request shall submit the
budget request to the department of education annually on or before September 15. The department of education shall
verify the budget request of each school district and charter school for accuracy and compliance with the form prescribed
in section 15-756.01, subsection G. The department shall collect all school district and charter school budget requests and
submit them to the legislature for funding from the Arizona structured English immersion fund established by section 15756.04 at the same time as the department’s budget request.
15-756.04. Arizona structured English immersion fund
A. The Arizona structured English immersion fund is established. The department of education shall administer the fund.
B. The department shall submit an annual request for an appropriation for the purposes of this section.
C. In addition to the ELL support level weight prescribed in section 15-943, the department shall distribute monies from
the fund to school districts and charter schools in an amount specified in the budget request prescribed in section 15756.03, subsection C. Monies from the fund established by this section and monies for the ELL support level weight
prescribed in section 15-943 shall not be distributed for more than two fiscal years for the same pupil. This subsection
does not prohibit a school district or charter school from receiving monies from the statewide compensatory instruction
fund established by section 15-756.11 for more th …
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