250 words and 1-2 resources per discussion. They must be answered separately and must have the resource listed below each discussion question for full points.5451) Kylee PalmerTopic 8 DQ 1 (Obj. 8.1)In the state of Arizona, any person who believes a child under the age of 18 has been “abused, neglected, exploited or abandoned” should file a report (Arizona Department of Child Safety, 2019). Abuse does not have to be proven to file a request for an investigation. According to Arizona law ARS 13-3620, mandated reported are to report ALL concerns of child abuse and/or neglect. Those who are mandated reporters include: teachers, social workers, doctors, counselors, etc. A report can be made by calling a child abuse hotline or even online. If a mandated reporter fails to report abuse, they could face a Class 1 misdemeanor. Further, if a mandated reporter fails to report a “reportable offense” they could be guilty of a Class 6 felony. Reportable offenses in Arizona include: “child sex-trafficking, incest, or secret videotaping, photographing, filming or digital recording of a minor in certain circumstances” (Nanez, 2018).As a burgeoning counselor, I feel that it is important to recognize you do not need proof to file a report/request to DCS here in Arizona. As a previous intensive case manager at a behavioral health agency, I have had to call the hotline of reported abuse before. I have also worked with therapists at this old agency who have also had to call in reported abuse. When in doubt, report. It is easy to imagine a “gray area”, however, I do not think this will be something I can use to justify not reporting. It really is more of a black and white decision. We must protect our clients from harm’s way.Arizona Department of Child Safety (2019). Report child abuse or neglect. Retrieved from: https://dcs.az.gov/report-child-abuse Nanez, D. (2018). Understand the system for these people, reporting child abuse is mandatory. The Republic. Retrieved from: https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/local/arizona…2) Charles RobertsTopic 8 DQ 1 (Obj. 8.1)Arizona legislature 13-3620 is the legal and ethical description of one’s duty to report abuse, physical injury, neglect and deprivation of nourishment or medical care (azleg.gov, n.d.). The law includes descriptions of who is responsible for mandated reporting and this includes behavioral health workers, psychologists, and health care workers including dentists, school workers such as teachers, and any parents or adults that have cared for the child (azleg.gov, n.d.). The reporting includes any reasonable belief of abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and denial or deprivation of nourishment or medical care be reported to a peace officer. Anyone reporting suspected child abuse with reasonable belief can report to Arizona Department of Child Services for an investigation, and the reporter should be aware of the parent’s names and addresses, then child’s age and nature of the abuse, and any other helpful information.As a budding counselor, I feel that the most crucial thing in mandated reporting is recognizing the signs of abuse and neglect. Some signs the child may universally display in abuse are passive, “skittish,” learning difficulties, changes in behavior or school performance, is reluctant, and has visible bruises or injuries (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2019). I feel as a counselor when the signs are present more information is needed and a DCS report should be made, as the safety of the child is the priority.ReferencesAzleg.gov(n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2019, from https://www.azleg.gov/ars/13/03620.htmChild Welfare Information Gateway. (2019). What is child abuse and neglect? Recognizing the signs and symptoms. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubpdfs/whatiscan.pdf3) Tolliver AndersonTopic 8 DQ 2 (Obj. 8.1)Reporting child abuse can take a toll on the therapist and mandated reporters when they are involved in reporting abuse. The therapist may experience apprehension or nervousness because s/he fear backlash from the family or the abuser. By law in the state of Louisiana when a mandated reporter suspects child abuse or neglect s/he is obligated to report their suspicion immediately (DCFS, 2019). An excellent way to help in knowing when to report child abuse is to develop a relationship with the local CPS agency and the local law enforcement agency (Jackson-Cherry & Erford, 2018). However, child abuse reports can be filed anonymously which may reduce the therapist nervousness and not get in the way of them filing. Asking for help from a supervisor is always the best first option when a therapist is unsure of what to do about submitting a report for child abuse.In the state of Louisiana, mandated reporters must report abuse immediately. If the report is made orally a written report must follow within five days to the local child protection agency of the Louisiana Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS), or law enforcement if necessary (DCFS, 2019). The report should include if known, name, address, age, sex, child race, the child injuries, parents address, list of all family members, name of the reporter and any other information that will be helpful (DCFS, 2019). Oral reports are made by calling 1-855-4LA-KIDS (1-855-452-5437) toll-free 24hours a day.ReferenceJackson-Cherry, L. R., & Erford, B. T. (2018). Crisis assessment, intervention, and prevention (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Mandated Reporter Training Available on DCFS Website. (n.d.). Retrieved May 8, 2019, from http://www.dcfs.louisiana.gov/index.cfm?md=newsroo…5234) Ariel GloverTopic 8 DQ 1 (Obj. 8.1)I found it to be quite interesting that many insurance companies are straying away from paying for psychological assessments (Youngstrom, 2013). In my opinion, psychological assessments are very useful, especially when applied to a counseling or clinical setting. These types of test provides necessary insights into some vital information clients may not desire to readily admit or bring up to mental health professionals. Youngstrom (2013) also pointed out that now a days assessments are more of a luxury than a necessity, stating that “assessment might be a luxury in which some could afford to indulge, paying for extensive evaluations as a way to gain insight into themselves” (p. 139). However, there are still those clinicians and researchers that stands behind the need for assessments by persuading others of the utility of assessments that has been clearly proven to promote or enhance individual client care, with the costs of such assessments far outweighing the costs (Youngstrom, 2013).The problem lies in many of the most commonly used psychological assessments being administered, but not possessing the right amount of validity as they should for a proper diagnoses or confident direction for therapeutic treatment. Instead, Youngstrom (2013) suggests that future counseling could consist of evidence based medicine integrated with psychology calling for clinicians to look into mental health conditions by available evidence used to “rule out” what is clearly not the diagnoses for each individual client and then working toward assessments or treatments that focuses solely on the conditions to be “ruled in” based on the evidence the client displays. Therefore, by using this method, Youngstrom (2013) thinks that there will be less clinical ambiguity by quickly establishing a clear target for treatment once all non-applicable conditions are ruled out. ReferencesYoungstrom, E. (2013). Future Directions in Psychological Assessment: Combining Evidence-Based Medicine Innovations with Psychology’s Historical Strengths to Enhance Utility. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42(1), 139–159. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/15374416.2012.7363585) Kelsey GoldenTopic 8 DQ 1 (Obj. 8.1)I learned over the course that psychological testing and assessments are used for helping a counselor diagnose their client and create a treatment plan that is specifically geared towards that client. I realized that without these types of assessments a counselor is kind of blind going into the treatment planning process. Although the assessments are similar each result is specific to the individual client. These assessments are more of a base model to help gather information that is imperative for the counselor to know. A great tool we learned about was the cross-cutting screening tool. The American Psychological Association (2018) states that this specific tool is important in understanding key risk factors of a number of domains: depression, anger, mania, anxiety, somatic, suicide ideation, psychosis, sleep problems, memory, repetitive thoughts, and behavioral functioning. In our society today, especially adolescents and victims of domestic violence, depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation are a major issue. I can’t even number how many students I have had in my five years of teaching that have told me about suicidal thoughts and wants, their depression, and their anxiety problems. I have noticed a rising number of these in middle school aged children. This course has helped me to notice more ways that I can reach and help out in my position to my kids that struggle with this. Testing and assessments are extremely important in helping client in the future.American Psychiatric Association (APA) (2018) Online Assessment Measures. APA Website. Retrieved from https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/dsm/dsm-5/online-assessment-measures6) Demetress HallTopic 8 DQ 2 (Obj. 8.1)Limits of ConfidentialityCohen and Swerdlik (2018) states that confidentiality protects privileged communication between therapist and client including: health records and assessments. Court case Jaffe vs. Redmon (1996) concluded that confidentiality is an ethical mandate with legal protection. The client has a reasonable expectation of confidentiality, however there are limits to confidentiality. Due to another landmark legal case, Tarasoff vs. Regents of the University of California (1974) which the court ruled that if privileged communications between therapist and client that include threat or harm to a 3rd party person(s), then the professional counselor has a duty warn and protect. According to Cohen and Swerdlik (2018) states that “Protective privilege ends where the public peril begins” (p.73).Cultural SensitivityAccording to Cohen and Swerdlik (2018) there was a time in history when psychological tests did not consider cultural differences, which promoted cultural biases. In the early 1900s, the United State relied on intelligence tests to help screen immigrants coming to Elis Island. Language barriers and cultural difference resulted in poor test scores and were considered intellectually deficient. Immigrants were deemed feebleminded and denied U.S. citizenship. These tests exposed a lack of cultural sensitivity and generated a movement towards cultural competence in test development and assessments (ACA, 2014, E.8).Standard of CareStandard of care also relates to psychological assessments and tests, the ethical responsibility to clients assessed. To guard against misinterpretation of scores and the use of obsolete assessment instruments. Counseling professions must also improve current skills in the area of practice, and keeping informed on progress and change in the field. In order to give clients, the standard of care mandated by the ethical codes (ACA, 2014, E.9-11).IntakeCounselors are mandated by The ACA (2014) Code of Ethics states that counselors are to obtain informed consent, demonstrate competence in cultural sensitivity and always administer the highest standard of care for clients. First, upon intake making clients aware of the limits of confidentiality is a significant part of counseling by obtaining informed consent and discussing clients understanding of confidentiality and its limits (ACA, 2014, E.3). Secondly, during intake professional is mandated to administer test with cultural competence and taking into consideration the influence of culture on language, values, beliefs and behavior. Third, the ACA (2014) Code of Ethics help counseling professionals maintain compliance with ethical mandates, acquire knowledge, safeguard appropriate use assessments and continue education.ResearchAmerican Counseling Association (2014). ACA Code of Ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.Cohen, R. J., & Swerdlik, M.E. (2018). Psychological Testing and Assessment: An Introduction to Test and Measurements (9th ed). McGraw Hill Education. Retrieved from http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/mcgraw-hill/2017/psychological-testing-and-assessment_9e.php

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