1. attached is paper framework, please follow
that framework carefully****2.
should have three body paragraphs3.
each body paragraph should have one in-text citation and MLA citation style4.
each body paragraph should craft an argument that properly answer the prompt



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Professor Paul Rosetti
Writing Program / English Department
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
175 University Avenue
Newark, NJ 07102
—-Office: Conklin Hall #145
Email: paul.rosetti@rutgers.edu
101: In-Class Essay #3: “Courage”: Prompt
For this exam you have been asked to read “Courage” by animal rights activist Kristin Von Kreisler (from her book Beauty
in the Beasts). Some critics accuse Von Kreisler of manipulating her readers toward accepting the idea that animals have,
or ought to have, rights. By carefully analyzing the book excerpt provided, determine if this is a sound interpretation of
her work. To do so, consider how an author might manipulate a reader. Then, analyze this text and argue whether Von
Kreisler does or does not manipulate her readers.
• Read the prompt carefully. Be sure you understand what is being asked.
• Craft an argument – with corresponding thesis – that responds directly to the prompt.
• Support your thesis with insightful analysis – including effective quotations from the text.
• Organize and structure your essay to align with the paper framework discussed in class. Your essay must have an
introduction paragraph and a concluding paragraph. Your essay also must have two or three body paragraphs –
each providing a single point to support your thesis. A title is optional.
• Cite your quotes from the text by placing the line number in parentheses after your quote. For example: As Dr.
Seuss wrote, “I do not like green eggs and ham” (126).
• Display a strong grasp of writing mechanics (e.g., grammar, punctuation, syntax, structure).
• Write using third-person perspective. Do not write using first- or second-person perspective.
• Budget your time. Save enough time and energy to proofread your essay well.
• You have the entire class period to write your essay.
• You may use a dictionary, a grammar book, and/or the handouts distributed in class. You may not share these
items. As with other exams during this course, these supplemental materials must be in hard copy.
• No electronic devices are permitted. Turn off laptops and cell phones.
• When finished, turn in your essay and prompt. Keep your reading to use during a future class discussion.
• You may leave at your convenience.
Professor Paul Rosetti
Writing Program / English Department
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
175 University Avenue
Newark, NJ 07102
—-Office: Conklin Hall #145
Email: paul.rosetti@rutgers.edu
English Composition Paper Framework: How to Build an Essay

The introduction welcomes the reader
into your mind.
By first introducing a broad topic, you are
able to gradually steer your reader to the
specific argument you want to make.
Set the stage… prime the pump… whet
the readers’ appetite… but prove your
argument in the body of your paper, not
the introduction.
4-8 sentences, approximately

Each body paragraph focuses on one part
of your argument — a single idea in
support of your thesis.
The sum of the points made within your
body paragraphs equals your complete
Three body paragraphs are required for all
formal papers and in-class essays.
Each body paragraph must provide a
strong point, thoughtful analysis, and
credible support.
Occasionally, a body paragraph is split into
two paragraphs to create a body section.
In this case, the purpose is the same – a
single idea to help prove the thesis – and
all body paragraph elements still must be
5-10 sentences, approximately

Refocuses the attention of the reader on
your argument as a whole, rather than the
individual points raised by the body
Contains no new information in support of
the thesis
Provides closure to the argument
Serves as a “bookend” to the introduction
4-8 sentences, approximately

Introduces the reader to the broad topic of your paper or essay

Attempts to grab the attention of the reader

Narrows the scope of the broader topic

Introduces the primary source material – usually the full titles of the readings and the names of their
respective authors

Provides any other information the reader must have to consider your argument in relation to the
topic – perhaps a definition of a key term or information about the historical relevance of the reading
and/or topic
THESIS STATEMENT 1-2 sentences

Further narrows the topic’s scope to a direct response to the prompt

Uses the language of the question to make a connection (often)

States the argument being presented by your paper

Provides an outline of key points raised by your argument (optional)

Without a strong thesis, there is little chance the paper will succeed in presenting an adequate
response to the prompt.
TOPIC SENTENCE 1-2 sentences

Begins each body paragraph

Supports the body paragraph’s topic sentence

Provides analysis to support the point
Identifies the purpose (i.e., topic) of the body paragraph
Offers one point in support of the thesis – in other words, one piece of the thesis “pie”
Describes a concept or idea, rather than recounting specific details from the reading
Provides a transition from the previous point (If needed)
Explains in your own words the point you are making
Describes specific details from the reading
Introduces and leads into the analysis and support
ANALYSIS & SUPPORT 1-2 sentences
Includes a direct quotation from the reading (parenthetical citations in MLA format)
Supplements analysis with quotes from subject matter experts based on research (when required)

2-4 sentences
Binds the point, analysis and support into a unified thought
Places the point in context with the argument as a whole
Provides a sense of closure to the paragraph’s point

1-2 sentences
Revisits the purpose of the paper by restating the thesis using similar, but not identical, language
Provides a final opportunity to influence the reader, which is especially helpful if the thesis did not
resonate with the reader
2-4 sentences

Offers a succinct and concise recap of the paper’s central argument – provides a summary of the
argument without simply copying the language from earlier in the essay

Revisits the points made in the body paragraphs; offers a holistic perspective on your argument
1-2 sentences

Provides a point of closure for your argument and your paper

Gives the paper a tone of finality, thereby showing the reader that your argument is finished
Shares a revelation gleaned from the paper’s argument and/or leaves the reader with a thoughtprovoking idea or question

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