*****Read the ppt first*****To state whether each question is an observable (eg gender)
or unobservable variable (e.g opinion on campus safety) If unobservable, state
what CONSTRUCT (Chapter 11) the question is addressing, and why you used the
scale you did. Constructs are unobserved opinions, desires, and other concepts.
Your book gives examples for people desiring a product. The ‘product’ YOU are
addressing is campus safety, so you need to develop some parallel concepts


Unformatted Attachment Preview

Hypotheses 1: Students that attend SJSU feel that the campus is not safe. Girls are prone to be more aware
and concerned.
– On a scale from 1-10, with 10 being the safest, how safe do you feel on campus?
– What is SJSU doing to keep students safe on campus?
– Is there a specific location around campus that is the most concerning when it comes to your personal
safety? (Yes or No)
– What would you contact them in regard to? (UPD)
Hypotheses 2: UPD is not doing its job in keeping the students safe. How this affects those who live on
campus vs off campus.
– Does SJSU provide any safe transportation policies? (Yes, No, Not sure)
– As a commuter, how safe do you feel being on campus?
– On a scale from 1-5, with 5 being very safe, how safe do you feel parking in the campus garages?
– Have there been any incidents that you have witnessed/heard within the parking structures on campus?
(Yes or No)
Hypotheses 3: Campus at night is frightful to girls than guys.
– Do you feel safer on campus during the day or at night?
– On a scale from 1-10, with 10 being the safest, how safe do you feel being on campus at night?
– Should SJSU implement security to the garages? (Yes, No, Not Sure)
– How often do you actually use the blue light poles for UPD? (Always, A Few Times, Once, or Never)
– How effective do you think these blue light poles on campus are? (Very, Moderate, Poor)
Chapter Eleven
Attitude &
Predicting Behavior
Enduring organization of motivational, emotional,
perceptual, and cognitive processes with respect to some
aspect of a person’s environment.
Factors to determine if research
findings will predict behavior:
Key Terms & Definitions
Involvement of the consumer
Attitude measurement
Effects of other people
Situational factors
Effects of other brands
Attitude strength
Attitude Links
• The more favorable the attitude, the higher the
incidence of product usage.
• The less favorable toward a product, the more likely
they are to stop using it.
• The attitudes of the “never tried” people tend to be
distributed around the mean of a normal distribution.
• Attitudes vary depending on what
they are based on (use of the product
or just promotion about a product).
Key Terms & Definitions
What are Scales For?
Procedures for assigning numbers (or other
symbols) to properties of an object in order
to impart some numerical characteristics to
the properties in question.
Measures only one attribute of a
concept, respondent, or object.
Measures several dimensions of a
concept, respondent, or object.
Key Terms & Definitions
Types of Measurement Scales
Non-comparative Scale:
Scales in which judgment is made without reference to
another object, concept, or person.
Comparative Scale:
Scales in which one object, concept,
or person is compared with another on
a scale.
Key Terms & Definitions
Graphic Rating Scales
Measurement scales that include a graphic continuum,
anchored by two extremes.
Key Terms & Definitions
Graphic Rating Scales
These scales are often used when interviewing children.
How do you feel when coming to marketing research class?
Key Terms & Definitions
Itemized Rating Scales
The respondent selects an answer from a
limited number of ordered categories.
Odd Scale
Even Scale
Key Terms & Definitions
Not Important
Not Important
What characteristic are you measuring?
Key Terms & Definitions
One-Stage vs. Two-Stage Format
Key Terms & Definitions
Rank Order Scale
Key Terms & Definitions
Paired Comparison
Key Terms & Definitions
Constant Sum Scale
Key Terms & Definitions
Interval Scales Used in
Marketing Research
• A symmetric interval scale is “balanced,”
as it has equal amounts of positive and
negative positions, and typically it has “no
opinion” or “neutral” separating the
negative and positive sides.
• A nonsymmetric interval scale has mainly
degrees of positive positions and would be
more appropriate because most people do
not think in degrees of negative
Interval Scales Commonly Used
in Marketing Research
• Likert scale
–Lifestyle inventory
• Semantic differential scale
• Stapel scale
Semantic Differential
• A semantic differential scale contains a series of
bipolar adjectives for the various properties of the
object under study, and respondents indicate their
impressions of each property by indicating locations
along its continuum.
– Examples of ‘bipolar’:Unpleasant/pleasant
Generally scaled 1-7 or -3 to 3
• A concern with this type of scale is the halo effect, in
which a general overall feeling about a brand or store
could bias responses on its specific properties.
Semantic Differential Scale
Key Terms & Definitions
Levels of Measurement
Key Terms & Definitions
Likert Scale
• An interval scale commonly used by
marketing researchers is the Likert
scale, in which respondents are
asked to indicate their degree of
agreement or disagreement on a
symmetric agree–disagree scale
for each of a series of statements.
Likert Scale
Key Terms & Definitions
Lifestyle Inventory
• A special application of the Likert scale
question form called the lifestyle
inventory takes into account the values
and personality traits of people as
reflected in their unique activities,
interests, and opinions (AIOs) toward their
work, leisure time, and purchases.
Stapel Scale
• The Stapel scale relies on positive
and negative numbers, typically
ranging from +5 to –5.
Stapel Scale
Key Terms & Definitions
Interval Scales Used in
Marketing Research
• Questions to ask when determining
what scale to use:
–Should the scale include a neutral
–Should the scale be symmetric or
Purchase Intent Scales
Key Terms & Definitions
How to Select a Scale
Things to Consider
1. The Nature of the Construct Being Measured
2. Type of Scale and Number of Scale Categories
3. Balanced vs. Non-balanced
• Balanced:
• Scales with equal numbers of positive & negative
• Non-balanced:
• Scales weighted towards one end or the other of the
4. Forced vs. Non-forced
• Having an odd vs. even number of response choices.
Key Terms & Definitions
Attitude Measures and
Management Decision Making
Those customer attitudes most closely related to
preferences or to actual purchase decisions.
Key Terms & Definitions
Types of Questioning
A researcher just has to pay attention to the advantages and
disadvantages of each of these methods.
Key Terms & Definitions
Reliability and Validity
Degree to which measures are free from random error
and, therefore, provide consistent data. The extent to
which the survey responses are internally consistent.
Degree to which what the researcher was trying to
measure was actually measured.
Key Terms & Definitions
Reliability and Validity of
• Validity: respondent responds in the same
or a similar manner to an identical or
nearly identical measure-freedom from
systematic errors (i.e., no bias).
• Reliability: accuracy of the measurementfreedom from random errors (i.e., same
respondent answers about the same
eac time.)
Reliability and Validity
Key Terms & Definitions
Reliability is the extent to which a measurement is
free from random errors – its consistency. It is
estimated with three different methods:
• test-retest reliability: compares repeated
measurements using the same scaling device
under similar conditions on the same subjects
• alternative-forms reliability: compares
measurements between two equivalent but not
identical forms, administered to the same subjects
• split-half reliability: compares measurements
between equivalent groups of item responses in a
multi-item measurement device
Validity is the extent to which measurement is free
from systematic error – the average accuracy. It is
estimated with four different methods:
• construct validity: compares measurements from
the construct of interest and related constructs
• content (face) validity: compares measurements
with judgments by experts
• concurrent validity: compares two different
measurements of the same marketing
phenomenon at the same point in time
• predictive validity: compares current
measurements with predicted measurements
Testing Reliability
Internal Consistency:
The ability of an instrument to produce similar results
when used on different samples during the same time
period to measure a phenomenon.
Spilt Half Technique:
A method of assessing the reliability of a scale by
dividing the total set of measurement items in half and
correlating the results.
Key Terms & Definitions
Testing Reliability
Test and Retest:
The ability of the same instrument to produce consistent
results when used a second time under conditions as similar
as possible to the original conditions.
Lack of change in results from test to test.
Equivalent Form:
Ability of two very similar forms of an instrument to
produce closely correlated results.
Key Terms & Definitions
Testing Validity
The degree to which a measurement seems to
measure what it is supposed to measure.
The representativeness, or sampling adequacy, of the
content of the
measurement instrument.
Key Terms & Definitions
Testing Validity
Criterion Related:
The degree to which a measurement instrument can
predict a variable that is designated a criterion.
The degree to which a measurement instrument
represents and logically connects, via the underlying
theory, the observed phenomenon to the construct.
Key Terms & Definitions
Testing Validity
The degree to which a future level of a criterion can
be forecast by a current measurement scale.
The degree to which another variable, measured at
the same point in time as the variable of interest, can
be predicted by the measurement instrument.
Key Terms & Definitions
Testing Validity
The degree of correlation among different measures
that purport to measure the same construct.
The measure of the lack of association among
constructs that are supposed to be different.
Key Terms & Definitions
Key Terms & Definitions
• Attitude
• Scaling
• Unidimensional Scales
• Multidimensional Scales
• Graphic Rating Scales
• Itemized Rating Scales
• Noncomparative Scales
• Rank-order Scales
• Comparative Scales
• Q-sorting
Links and
Key Terms & Definitions
• Paired Comparison Scales
• Constant Sum Scales
• Semantic Differential Scales
• Staple Scales
• Likert Scales
• Purchase Intent Scales
• Non Promoter Score (NPS)
• Balanced Scales
• Nonbalanced Scales
• Determinant Attitudes
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