*****NO PLAGIARISM WILL BE TOLERATED. PAPER MUST BE COMPLETED IN 24 HOURS AND THE REST OF THE TIME WILL BE USED SO I CAN LOOK OVER AND WE CAN REVISE IT**************This Research Paper Must be taken seriously 5-8 pages Double spacedMust use proper Grammar Spelling and present a College Level PaperARTICLE AND INSTRUCTIONS PDF ARE ATTACHEDI also attached the Textbook Please read through all instructions on the document. Follow all instructions properly and carefully. APA Style Citations is required. Follow all the guidelines under the section called REQUIREMENTS AND POLICIES. Ignore the getting help section on the instructions.Make sure to look at grading criteria and follow the best possible paper- Remember that you will need to accurately summarize the articles in terms of theory and results!- You are strongly encouraged to find additional sources that could help provide depth and richness to the points you make in your paper. Such additional sources might be other articles or book chapters that can give you helpful information about the theory.Theory that will be used is the Uses and Gratifications Theory. ARTICLE: Wikipedia Isn’t Officially a
Social Network. But the
Harassment Can Get UglyAttatched will also be a presentation showing proper and improper ways to cite APA.




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The purpose of this assignment is to:
1. Increase your knowledge of how theory explains communication phenomena.
2. Challenge you to apply theoretical ideas to real life events/experiences.
3. Help you learn how theory is tested and shaped through empirical research.
4. Develop your skills for doing library and database research in the social sciences.
5. Improve your ability to read and understand original research articles in scholarly journals.
Your TA will present you with one or more recent news stories about current events. You need to
choose one of these stories. In a 5-8 page paper, you will:
1. Identify, review, and apply a specific communication theory to the people, events, or issues
that are involved in the news story.
2. Describe how at least two empirical studies about that theory relate to your discussion.
Step 1
Consider which news story to focus on. You will ultimately need to choose one news story of the
two or three that your TA assigns to you. Each TA will have a different set of stories, so you can
only choose from the ones your own TA assigns to your section.
Step 2
Brainstorm communication topics. You will utilize one theory to explain something that is going
on in the news story. However, it’s likely the case that you don’t know many theories yet (at least,
not by name). So, in order to find a theory, first read the news stories several times and think of
any topics related to communication (in general) that you see. This could include various topics,
such as conflict resolution, ingroup/outgroup interaction, media effects, agenda setting,
nonverbal communication, technology and interpersonal relationships, selective attention to
media, emotion, and persuasion. These are just a few of the many topics you might find. If you’ve
taken Comm 1, you can also think back to any topics you remember from that class. The
communication topics you find can help you determine which theory to use in your paper.
Helpful Tip: You will do multiple exercises in your discussion section to help you with this
step. Be sure to attend your discussion section and complete the exercises and
“landmark” assignments.
Step 3
Use the literature to help you find possible theories. There are several ways to find a good theory
for this paper. You can look through the textbook and articles posted on GauchoSpace to see if
any of the theories sound promising. But be careful not to just pick the first theory you see or
limit yourself only to the theories from class—there are a lot more theories out there! Also, some
of the theories in the textbook will not work well for this assignment. More recently-developed
theories might be especially applicable to your paper.
Once you have some good topics/terms/concepts in mind, scour the research literature for
empirical studies (as well as other sources) that focus on your topic of interest. You can search
for a particular theory name if you already have a theory in mind (e.g., Social Cognitive Theory,
Groupthink, Elaboration Likelihood Model), but again, this can be limiting, because the studies
do not always mention the theory in their title or abstract. It often works better to type in phrases
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or terms that you’re focusing on (e.g., “media role models”). The one theory that you ultimately
choose should inform/explain/address the news story in some way.
Helpful Tip: Be sure to download and save the articles you read while you’re doing your
research. Save the articles as PDFs. It’s easy to forget where you found an article. Saving
downloaded articles can save you a lot of time in the long run.
Step 4
Focus on one particular theory. The studies you find probably will discuss several different
theories. Typically, theories are discussed in the first section of each article (i.e., the introduction
or literature review). Sometimes researchers very clearly identify theory names (e.g., “using the
framework of Attachment Theory . . .”), while others allude to their use of theoretical principles
(e.g., “research on attachment styles suggests that . . .”). So you may have to dig a little, consult
the textbook, or do some additional research to see if you can figure out what theory the authors
are using. But more importantly, you need to pick the one theory that you think has something
valuable, insightful, or interesting to say about the issues, events or people involved in the news
Step 5
Choose at least two empirical research articles that use the same theory. Both studies must use
the one theory you’re going to apply in your paper. These two sources must be empirical studies
published in scholarly journals.
Note: An “empirical study” reports the results of actual research using data collected from
surveys, experiments, content analysis or other types of methods. A good clue that an article is
empirical is if you can find the Method section that reports the participants and/or forms of
measurement as well as a Results section that reports the findings and data analysis.
Remember that you will need to accurately summarize the articles in terms of theory and results.
Make sure to carefully read and take notes on the articles.
You’re also strongly encouraged to find additional sources that could help you provide depth and
richness to the points you make in your paper. Such additional sources might be other articles,
book chapters, or textbooks that give you helpful information about the theory.
Helpful Tip: Get started early and be flexible. You may have to search the library’s
databases several times to get a good selection of articles. Try several different ways of
approaching the topics you see in your news story and search for a variety of research
articles. If you cannot find good articles on one issue or topic, try another.
1. Introduction
Write a comprehensive introduction that informs the reader of the main ideas in the paper with a
clear thesis statement and preview. Try to make your introduction both informative and
engaging. Be sure to identify the communication issue/topic that arises from the people or
events in the story and the theory that will help to explain it. It is possible that your introduction
will require more than one paragraph.
2. Application
Apply one theory to something important that is going on with the events and/or people in the
news story. In addition, briefly describe the theory itself. To do this, you’ll need to draw upon the
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textbook and additional sources you find. Discuss how this theory and its terms/concepts would
explain or apply to the events in the story. Be as specific, thorough, and thoughtful as possible.
How does this theory provide a new understanding of these events, people, or behaviors? What
aspects of the events or behaviors does the theory explain well, and why? In what ways might the
theory fall short in helping to understand these events/behaviors? Be sure to support your
arguments. Draw upon your research sources wherever appropriate.
3. Review
Review how researchers have used the theory in at least two empirical studies. For each study,
explain how researchers used the theory to inform their study. For example, did the researchers
test a particular aspect of the theory? Was the study an application of some of the theory’s
concepts under new conditions or with different participant populations? Was the theory used
merely to help the researchers define variables? Briefly summarize each study (e.g., what they
did, what they found, etc.) and describe any major results that relate to the theory. How do the
studies relate to your discussion of your news story?
4. Connect
Tie together the different parts of your paper. This is NOT just a conclusion paragraph (although
of course you need one of those, too). You need to make connections between your application
of theory to the news story and the empirical research you found. Some tying together should be
done “as you go along” in the paper (e.g., to provide good transitions between issues or to note
an interesting connection between a finding and something you said earlier), but you will also
need to draw some larger conclusions and insights about the different issues you’ve raised. How
does your use of the theory to explain the news article fit together with or differ from the
researchers’ use of the theory? What should we now think about this theory in light of your
analysis of the news story and the research?
The paper should be 5-8 pages of text (not counting title page and references). You do NOT need
an abstract for this paper. The paper should be typed, double-spaced, page-numbered, with 1″
margins and Times New Roman 12-point font. Please use APA formatting throughout the paper.
Note that Word’s default settings are usually wrong for this assignment (margins too big, font too
small, extra line spaces inserted after paragraphs, etc.), so you’ll need to change these settings.
Include a title page with your name and your TA’s name/section clearly identified. All papers
should also have proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Problematic writing mechanics
hinder the clarity of your ideas and the strength of the arguments, and will therefore detract from
the paper score.
APA Style Citations and Plagiarism
Since this assignment requires you to make good use of the thoughts, writings, and work of
others, proper citations are essential. Your paper must follow APA style (not MLA) for in-text
citations and for your reference list. You will find some guidelines for APA style on GauchoSpace.
You will also have an APA style exercise in section. Plagiarism will result minimally in a zero
grade, and will likely also result in a failing grade in the course and further disciplinary action. Be
especially carefully not to “borrow” from another student’s paper, as this is also plagiarism
(whether or not specific words have been changed). In short, do your own work. You must also be
sure to write your paper on one of the exact news stories that your TA assigns to you. If you write
about a story not assigned to your section, your paper will receive a zero grade.
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Turning in Papers – Submit to GauchoSpace
All papers must be submitted electronically to GauchoSpace. Go to the Research Paper
Instructions and Paper Upload tab. In addition to GauchoSpace submission, it is possible that
the TA of your section will have additional paper submission requirements. Please follow any
additional guidelines outlined by your TA.
Papers must be submitted online prior to the start of class on the specified date. Late papers are
marked down 5 points per day late (see syllabus for additional details). Double check to make
sure you uploaded the correct file! We can only grade what you submit. Be sure not to
accidentally submit an older draft or the wrong file. Again, we can only grade what you submit.
Always keep a copy of your paper on hand for your records as well. In cases of serious
emergency, you must notify your TA and Dr. Merolla as soon as possible, and we will proceed
from there depending on the severity and verifiability of the emergency.
Your score will be based on how well your paper, compared to other students’ papers, shows: 1.
depth of analysis in using course concepts and outside research, 2. effectiveness at articulating and
supporting arguments, 3. accurate and thorough understanding of course material and outside
research, 4. University-level writing and organization, and 5. adherence to the instructions.
Note that we do not deduct points from your paper, but rather you earn points for writing with clearer
understanding and for making better, stronger, more insightful arguments than other papers do. It’s
often unclear what a truly excellent paper will look like until we read the papers that are turned in.
We anticipate that “average” papers will receive the equivalent of about a B-/C+ grade. The papers
that tend to end up in that top range are the ones that apply the theory and discuss the research not
only with accuracy, but also with depth, insight, and strong organization.
A good paper begins with good thinking, followed by a good outline, followed by good writing. A great
paper goes through several revisions before being turned in. Be sure you give yourself sufficient time
to think about, outline, write, and revise your paper.
Your TA will devote time in section to help you understand and do well on the assignment, so it’s
important to attend section. You’re also encouraged to see your TA or Dr. Merolla in office hours. But
neither your TA nor Dr. Merolla can just tell you what to write to get a good grade. When you come in,
it’s a good idea to bring your outline or some notes regarding your ideas.
You may also get writing help from Campus Learning Assistance Services (CLAS), although please
note that the tutors at CLAS, while helpful with general writing skills, might not know the specific
course material nor the assignment. They also do not necessarily know the high caliber of papers
that we usually see in this course. Thus, it’s plausible that they could tell you that your paper is
“fine,” when for our class that could mean “average.”
Rough drafts: You’re welcome to bring a rough draft to office hours and ask questions about any part
of it. But, in the case of paper drafts, you must choose only one or two paragraphs of the draft to
have us go over with you in detail for writing style and/or content issues.
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Communication Theory
Richard West
Emerson College
Lynn H. Turner
Marquette University
Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2018 by
McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions
© 2014, 2010, and 2004. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by
any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill
Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or
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Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside
the United States.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
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ISBN 978-1-259-87032-3
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
West, Richard L. | Turner, Lynn H.
Introducing communication theory : analysis and application/Richard
West, Emerson College, Lynn H. Turner, Marquette University.
Sixth edition. | New York, NY : McGraw-Hill Education, [2019] |
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
LCCN 2016059715 | ISBN 9781259870323 (alk. paper)
LCSH: Information theory. | Communication.
LCC Q360 .W47 2019 | DDC 003/.54—dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016059715
The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website
does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education
does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.
Part One  Foundations  1
Thinking About Communication: Definitions, Models,
and Ethics  3
Thinking About the Field: Traditions and Contexts   24
Thinking About Theory and Research   42
Part Two   Understanding the Dialogue   65
Symbolic Interaction Theory   68
Coordinated Management of Meaning   83
Cognitive Dissonance Theory   104
Expectancy Violations Theory   119
Uncertainty Reduction Theory   135
Social Exchange Theory   155
Social Penetration Theory   170
Relational Dialectics Theory   187
Communication Privacy Management Theory   204
Social Information Processing Theory   218
Groupthink  237
Structuration Theory  255
Organizational Culture Theory   272
Organizational Information Theory   287
The Rhetoric  306
Dramatism  324
The Narrative Paradigm   338
Agenda Setting Theory   355
Spiral of Silence Theory   369
Uses and Gratifications Theory   387
Cultivation Theory  403
Cultural Studies  420
Media Ecology Theory   436
Face-Negotiation Theory  459
Communication Accommodation Theory   476
Muted Group Theory   494
Feminist Standpoint Theory   510
ConnectingQuests  527
Glossary  G-1
References  R-1
Name Index  I-1
Subject Index  I-11
iv    Brief Contents
Preface  xvii
About the Authors   xxix
Chapter 1 Thinking About Communication: Definitions,
Models, and Ethics   3
Defining Communication   5
Models of Understanding: Communication as Action,
Interaction, and Transaction   8
Communication as Action: The Linear Model    9
Communication as Interaction: The Interactional Model    10
Communication as Transaction: The Transactional Model    12
Communication Models of the Future    13
Ethics and Communication   14
Business and Industry   15
Religion and Faith   16
Entertainment   17
Higher Education   17
Medicine   18
Politics   19
Technology   19
Some Final Thoughts   19
The Value of Understanding Communication Theory    21
Understanding Communication Theory Cultivates
Critical Thinking Skills   21
Understanding Communication Theory Helps You
to Recognize the Breadth and Depth of Research    21
Understanding Communication Theory Helps to Make
Sense of Personal Life Experiences    22
Communication Theory Fosters Self-Awareness    22
Conclusion   22
Discussion Starters   23
Chapter 2 Thinking About the Field: Traditions
and Contexts   24
Seven Traditions in the Communication Field    25
The Rhetorical Tradition   26
The Semiotic Tradition   27
The Phenomenological Tradition   27
The Cybernetic Tradition   28
The Socio-Psychological Tradition   28
The Socio-Cultural Tradition   29
The Critical Tradition   29
Putting It All Together    29
Seven Contexts in the Communication Field    30
Intrapersonal Communication   30
Interpersonal Communication   32
Small Group and Team Communication    33
Organizational Communication   34
Public/Rhetorical Communication   36
Mass/Media Communication   37
Cultur …
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